O'Grady points out that we know she represents ' Jezebel and Mammy ' "and best of all, she is not a real person...", rather she is object to the objectified and excluded from sexual difference according to Freudian theory.  While Olympia looks directly at the viewer, her maid, too, is looking back.  In her essay " Mammy , Jezebel , Sapphire and Their Homegirls: Developing an Oppositional Gaze toward the Images of Black Women", Catherine West concludes that by claiming an oppositional gaze we can identify, criticize, resist and transform these and other oppressive images of Black women. 
The predecessor of the Surrealist movement, Giorgio de Chirico intentionally subverted fictive spaces, typically city squares bordered by arcades or brick walls, to create enigmatic experience and refute reality. The artist became interested in notion of the eternal return and re-enactment of the myth after reading the German philosophers, particularly Friedrich Nietzsche . It was French poet Guillaume Apollinaire who first called de Chirico’s work ‘metaphysical’, from where the Metaphysical Art movement originated, with Giorgio de Chirico and Carlo Carrà as its leaders.